others-how to solve 'Program type already present: com.google.api.client.http.apache.ContentEntity'? when building an android app?

1. Problem

When building an android app, sometimes, we got this error:

> Task :app:transformClassesAndResourcesWithR8ForRelease FAILED
AGPBI: {"kind":"error","text":"Program type already present: com.google.api.client.http.apache.ContentEntity","sources":[{}],"tool":"R8"}

Program type already present: com.google.api.client.http.apache.ContentEntity

Execution failed for task ':app:transformClassesAndResourcesWithR8ForRelease'.
> com.android.tools.r8.CompilationFailedException: Compilation failed to complete

* Try:
Run with --info or --debug option to get more log output. Run with --scan to get full insights.

* Exception is:
org.gradle.api.tasks.TaskExecutionException: Execution failed for task ':app:transformClassesAndResourcesWithR8ForRelease'.
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter$3.accept(ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.java:151)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter$3.accept(ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.java:148)
    at org.gradle.internal.Try$Failure.ifSuccessfulOrElse(Try.java:191)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.execute(ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.java:141)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ResolveBeforeExecutionStateTaskExecuter.execute(ResolveBeforeExecutionStateTaskExecuter.java:75)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ValidatingTaskExecuter.execute(ValidatingTaskExecuter.java:62)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.SkipEmptySourceFilesTaskExecuter.execute(SkipEmptySourceFilesTaskExecuter.java:108)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ResolveBeforeExecutionOutputsTaskExecuter.execute(ResolveBeforeExecutionOutputsTaskExecuter.java:67)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ResolveAfterPreviousExecutionStateTaskExecuter.execute(ResolveAfterPreviousExecutionStateTaskExecuter.java:46)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.CleanupStaleOutputsExecuter.execute(CleanupStaleOutputsExecuter.java:94)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.FinalizePropertiesTaskExecuter.execute(FinalizePropertiesTaskExecuter.java:46)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ResolveTaskExecutionModeExecuter.execute(ResolveTaskExecutionModeExecuter.java:95)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.SkipTaskWithNoActionsExecuter.execute(SkipTaskWithNoActionsExecuter.java:57)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.SkipOnlyIfTaskExecuter.execute(SkipOnlyIfTaskExecuter.java:56)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.CatchExceptionTaskExecuter.execute(CatchExceptionTaskExecuter.java:36)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.EventFiringTaskExecuter$1.executeTask(EventFiringTaskExecuter.java:73)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.EventFiringTaskExecuter$1.call(EventFiringTaskExecuter.java:52)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.EventFiringTaskExecuter$1.call(EventFiringTaskExecuter.java:49)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor$CallableBuildOperationWorker.execute(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:416)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor$CallableBuildOperationWorker.execute(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:406)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor$1.execute(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:165)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.execute(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:250)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.execute(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:158)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.call(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:102)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DelegatingBuildOperationExecutor.call(DelegatingBuildOperationExecutor.java:36)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.EventFiringTaskExecuter.execute(EventFiringTaskExecuter.java:49)
    at org.gradle.execution.plan.LocalTaskNodeExecutor.execute(LocalTaskNodeExecutor.java:43)
    at org.gradle.execution.taskgraph.DefaultTaskExecutionGraph$InvokeNodeExecutorsAction.execute(DefaultTaskExecutionGraph.java:355)
    at org.gradle.execution.taskgraph.DefaultTaskExecutionGraph$InvokeNodeExecutorsAction.execute(DefaultTaskExecutionGraph.java:343)
    at org.gradle.execution.taskgraph.DefaultTaskExecutionGraph$BuildOperationAwareExecutionAction.execute(DefaultTaskExecutionGraph.java:336)
    at org.gradle.execution.taskgraph.DefaultTaskExecutionGraph$BuildOperationAwareExecutionAction.execute(DefaultTaskExecutionGraph.java:322)
    at org.gradle.execution.plan.DefaultPlanExecutor$ExecutorWorker$1.execute(DefaultPlanExecutor.java:134)
    at org.gradle.execution.plan.DefaultPlanExecutor$ExecutorWorker$1.execute(DefaultPlanExecutor.java:129)
    at org.gradle.execution.plan.DefaultPlanExecutor$ExecutorWorker.execute(DefaultPlanExecutor.java:202)
    at org.gradle.execution.plan.DefaultPlanExecutor$ExecutorWorker.executeNextNode(DefaultPlanExecutor.java:193)
    at org.gradle.execution.plan.DefaultPlanExecutor$ExecutorWorker.run(DefaultPlanExecutor.java:129)
    at org.gradle.internal.concurrent.ExecutorPolicy$CatchAndRecordFailures.onExecute(ExecutorPolicy.java:63)
    at org.gradle.internal.concurrent.ManagedExecutorImpl$1.run(ManagedExecutorImpl.java:46)
    at org.gradle.internal.concurrent.ThreadFactoryImpl$ManagedThreadRunnable.run(ThreadFactoryImpl.java:55)
Caused by: java.lang.RuntimeException: com.android.tools.r8.CompilationFailedException: Compilation failed to complete
    at com.android.builder.profile.Recorder$Block.handleException(Recorder.java:55)
    at com.android.builder.profile.ThreadRecorder.record(ThreadRecorder.java:108)
    at com.android.build.gradle.internal.pipeline.TransformTask.transform(TransformTask.java:230)
    at org.gradle.internal.reflect.JavaMethod.invoke(JavaMethod.java:103)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.project.taskfactory.IncrementalTaskInputsTaskAction.doExecute(IncrementalTaskInputsTaskAction.java:46)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.project.taskfactory.StandardTaskAction.execute(StandardTaskAction.java:41)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.project.taskfactory.AbstractIncrementalTaskAction.execute(AbstractIncrementalTaskAction.java:25)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.project.taskfactory.StandardTaskAction.execute(StandardTaskAction.java:28)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter$5.run(ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.java:404)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor$RunnableBuildOperationWorker.execute(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:402)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor$RunnableBuildOperationWorker.execute(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:394)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor$1.execute(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:165)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.execute(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:250)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.execute(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:158)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.run(DefaultBuildOperationExecutor.java:92)
    at org.gradle.internal.operations.DelegatingBuildOperationExecutor.run(DelegatingBuildOperationExecutor.java:31)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.executeAction(ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.java:393)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.executeActions(ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.java:376)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.access$200(ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.java:80)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter$TaskExecution.execute(ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.java:213)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.ExecuteStep.lambda$execute$0(ExecuteStep.java:32)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.ExecuteStep.execute(ExecuteStep.java:32)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.ExecuteStep.execute(ExecuteStep.java:26)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.CleanupOutputsStep.execute(CleanupOutputsStep.java:58)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.CleanupOutputsStep.execute(CleanupOutputsStep.java:35)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.ResolveInputChangesStep.execute(ResolveInputChangesStep.java:48)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.ResolveInputChangesStep.execute(ResolveInputChangesStep.java:33)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.CancelExecutionStep.execute(CancelExecutionStep.java:39)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.TimeoutStep.executeWithoutTimeout(TimeoutStep.java:73)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.TimeoutStep.execute(TimeoutStep.java:54)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.CatchExceptionStep.execute(CatchExceptionStep.java:35)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.CreateOutputsStep.execute(CreateOutputsStep.java:51)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.SnapshotOutputsStep.execute(SnapshotOutputsStep.java:45)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.SnapshotOutputsStep.execute(SnapshotOutputsStep.java:31)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.CacheStep.executeWithoutCache(CacheStep.java:201)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.CacheStep.execute(CacheStep.java:70)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.CacheStep.execute(CacheStep.java:45)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.BroadcastChangingOutputsStep.execute(BroadcastChangingOutputsStep.java:49)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.StoreSnapshotsStep.execute(StoreSnapshotsStep.java:43)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.StoreSnapshotsStep.execute(StoreSnapshotsStep.java:32)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.RecordOutputsStep.execute(RecordOutputsStep.java:38)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.RecordOutputsStep.execute(RecordOutputsStep.java:24)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.SkipUpToDateStep.executeBecause(SkipUpToDateStep.java:96)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.SkipUpToDateStep.lambda$execute$0(SkipUpToDateStep.java:89)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.SkipUpToDateStep.execute(SkipUpToDateStep.java:54)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.SkipUpToDateStep.execute(SkipUpToDateStep.java:38)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.ResolveChangesStep.execute(ResolveChangesStep.java:77)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.ResolveChangesStep.execute(ResolveChangesStep.java:37)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.legacy.MarkSnapshottingInputsFinishedStep.execute(MarkSnapshottingInputsFinishedStep.java:36)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.legacy.MarkSnapshottingInputsFinishedStep.execute(MarkSnapshottingInputsFinishedStep.java:26)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.ResolveCachingStateStep.execute(ResolveCachingStateStep.java:90)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.steps.ResolveCachingStateStep.execute(ResolveCachingStateStep.java:48)
    at org.gradle.internal.execution.impl.DefaultWorkExecutor.execute(DefaultWorkExecutor.java:33)
    at org.gradle.api.internal.tasks.execution.ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.execute(ExecuteActionsTaskExecuter.java:120)
    ... 35 more
Caused by: com.android.tools.r8.CompilationFailedException: Compilation failed to complete
    at com.android.tools.r8.utils.t.a(:55)
    at com.android.tools.r8.R8.runForTesting(:3)
    at com.android.tools.r8.R8.run(:3)
    at com.android.builder.dexing.R8Tool.runR8(r8Tool.kt:199)
    at com.android.build.gradle.internal.transforms.R8Transform.transform(R8Transform.kt:261)
    at com.android.build.gradle.internal.pipeline.TransformTask$2.call(TransformTask.java:239)
    at com.android.build.gradle.internal.pipeline.TransformTask$2.call(TransformTask.java:235)
    at com.android.builder.profile.ThreadRecorder.record(ThreadRecorder.java:106)
    ... 87 more
Caused by: com.android.tools.r8.utils.AbortException: Error: Program type already present: com.google.api.client.http.apache.ContentEntity
    at com.android.tools.r8.utils.Reporter.a(:21)
    at com.android.tools.r8.utils.Reporter.a(:7)
    at com.android.tools.r8.utils.t.a(:36)
    ... 94 more


The core error message is:

> Task :app:transformClassesAndResourcesWithR8ForRelease FAILED
AGPBI: {"kind":"error","text":"Program type already present: com.google.api.client.http.apache.ContentEntity","sources":[{}],"tool":"R8"}

Program type already present: com.google.api.client.http.apache.ContentEntity

Execution failed for task ':app:transformClassesAndResourcesWithR8ForRelease'.
> com.android.tools.r8.CompilationFailedException: Compilation failed to complete



2. Reason and Debug

Why did the error happen?

Because there exists some conflict among the dependencies of our app.

If a class appears more than once on the runtime classpath, you get an error similar to the following:

Program type already present com.example.MyClass

This error typically occurs due to one of the following circumstances:

A binary dependency includes a library that your app also includes as a direct dependency.

For example, your app declares a direct dependency on Library A and Library B, but Library A already includes Library B in its binary. To resolve this issue, remove Library B as a direct dependency.

Your app has a local binary dependency and a remote binary dependency on the same library.

To resolve this issue, remove one of the binary dependencies. ( See if same library is added as jar and gradle dependency)



How to debug?

gradlew app:dependencies

The above command will print all the dependencies of our app, you can find the conflicts in the dependencies with careful eyes.



3. Solution

Working solution for me

After debuging, I found conflict between two dependencies, which both depend on com.google.http-client

So the solution is:

    ...
    Implementation('com.google.api-client:google-api-client-android:1.35.1',{
        exclude group: 'com.google.http-client'
    })
    ...

We use exclude in the build.gradle to exclude the conflict package found in more than two dependencies.

Some other solutions

In Android Studio can be done also from the menu Build > Clean Project

or you can just check your libraries in your ./lib folder in your project for conflicts.



4. Summary

In this post, I demonstrated how to solve the Program type already present: com.google.api.client.http.apache.ContentEntity , the key point is to use gradlew app:dependencies to show all the packages and find the conflict, then you can exclude the packages in the dependency. That’s it, thanks for your reading.

problem:

debug:

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